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24 août 2011 3 24 /08 /août /2011 12:56

 

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 holding billions of dollars owned by the African states of the francophone nations of West and Central Africa in its own accounts and invested in the French Bourse. The Africans deposit the equivalent of 85%of their annual reserves in these accounts as a matter of post-colonial agreements and have never been given an accounting for how much the French are holding on their behalf, in what have these funds been invested, and what profit or loss there have been. The French have been acquiring and holding the national reserves of fourteen countries since 1961. Even allowing for losses and expenditures in keeping the CFA franc viable, the French are holding about at least four hundred billion dollars of African money, wholly unaccountably to the money’s putative owners, the African states. Even Bernie Madoff couldn’t have constructed a Ponzi scheme that large without being exposed.

This ‘bargain’ was made between the African former colonies and the French as part of the Pacte Coloniale which accompanied their independence and controlled through a single currency, the CFA franc... This was largely the work of the French presidential adviser, Jacques Foccart. Jacques Foccart was the chief adviser for the government of France on African policy as well as the co-founder of the Gaullist Service d'Action Civique (SAC) in 1959 with Charles Pasqua, which specialized in covert operations in Africa.

 

Hmed Bayayoko

It was Foccart “the eminence grise” who negotiated the Pacte Coloniale with the evolving French West African states who achieved their “flag independence “ in 1960. Not really having planned for it, in 1960 de Gaulle had to improvise structures for a collection of small newly independent states, each with a flag, an anthem, and a seat at the UN, but often with precious little else. It was here that Foccart came to play an essential role, that of architect of the series of Cooperation accords with each new state in the sectors of finance and economy, culture, education, and the military. There were initially eleven countries involved: Mauritania, Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, Dahomey (now Benin), Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Niger, Chad, Gabon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, and Madagascar. Togo and Cameroon, former UN Trust Territories, were also co-opted into the club. So, too, later on, were Mall and the former Belgian territories (Ruanda-Urundi, now Rwanda and Burundi, and Congo-Kinshasa), some of the ex-Portuguese territories, and Comoros and Djibouti, which had also been under French rule for many years but became independent in the 1970s. The whole ensemble was put under a new Ministry of Cooperation, created in 1961, separate from the Ministry of Overseas Departments and Territories (known as the DOM-TOM) that had previously run them all.

FranceAfrique

 

The key to all this was the agreement signed between France and its newly-liberated African colonies which locked these colonies into the economic and military embrace of France. This Colonial Pact not only created the institution of the CFA franc, it created a legal mechanism under which France obtained a special place in the political and economic life of its colonies.

The Pacte Coloniale Agreement enshrined a special preference for France in the political, commercial and defence processes in the African countries. On defence it agreed two types of continuing contact. The first was the open agreement on military co-operation or Technical Military Aid (AMT) agreements, which weren’t legally binding, and could be suspended according to the circumstances. They covered education, training of servicemen and African security forces. The second type, secret and binding, were defence agreements supervised and implemented by the French Ministry of Defence, which served as a legal basis for French interventions. These agreements allowed France to have pre-deployed troops in Africa; in other words, French army units present permanently and by rotation in bases and military facilities in Africa; run entirely by the French (and, incidentally, paid for by the Africans),.

 

In summary, the colonial pact maintained the French control over the economies of the African states; it took possession of their foreign currency reserves; it controlled the strategic raw materials of the country; it stationed troops in the country with the right of free passage; it demanded that all military equipment be acquired from France; it took over the training of the police and army; it required that French businesses be allowed to maintain monopoly enterprises in key areas (water, electricity, ports, transport, energy, etc.). France not only set limits on the imports of a range of items from outside the franc zone but also set minimum quantities of imports from France. These treaties are still in force and operational.

One of the most important influences in the economic and political life of African states which were formerly French colonies is the impact of a common currency; the Communuate Financiere de l’Afrique (‘CFA’ franc. There are actually two separate CFA francs in circulation. The first is that of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) which comprises eight West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo. The second is that of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) which comprises six Central African countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon), This division corresponds to the pre-colonial AOF (Afrique Occidentale Française) and the AEF (Afrique Équatoriale Française), with the exception that Guinea-Bissau was formerly Portuguese and Equatorial Guinea Spanish).

Each of these two groups issues its own CFA franc. The WAEMU CFA franc is issued by the BCEAO (Banque Centrale des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest) and the CEMAC CFA franc is issued by the BEAC (Banque des Etats de l’Afrique Centrale). These currencies were originally both pegged at 100 CFA for each French franc but, after France joined the European Community’s Euro zone at a fixed rate of 6.65957 French francs to one Euro, the CFA rate to the Euro was fixed at CFA 665,957 to each Euro, maintaining the 100 to 1 ratio. It is important to note that it is the responsibility of the French Treasury to guarantee the convertibility of the CFA to the Euro.

The monetary policy governing such a diverse aggregation of countries is uncomplicated for African Central Banks because it is, in fact, operated by the French Treasury, without reference to the central fiscal authorities of any of the WAEMU or the CEMAC. Under the terms of the agreement which set up these banks and the CFA the Central Bank of each African country is obliged to keep at least 65% of its foreign exchange reserves in an “operations account” held at the French Treasury, as well as another 20% to cover financial liabilities.

The CFA central banks also impose a cap on credit extended to each member country equivalent to 20% of that country’s public revenue in the preceding year. Even though the BEAC and the BCEAO have an overdraft facility with the French Treasury, the drawdowns on those overdraft facilities are subject to the consent of the French Treasury. The final say is that of the French Treasury which has invested the foreign reserves of the African countries in its own name on the Paris Bourse.

 

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In short, more than 80% of the foreign reserves of these African countries are deposited in the “operations accounts” controlled by the French Treasury. The two CFA banks are African in name, but have no monetary policies of their own. The countries themselves do not know, nor are they told, how much of the pool of foreign reserves held by the French Treasury belongs to them as a group or individually. The earnings of the investment of these funds in the French Treasury pool are supposed to be added to the pool but no accounting has ever been given to either the banks or the countries of the details of any such changes. The limited group of high officials in the French Treasury who have knowledge of the amounts in the “operations accounts”, where these funds are invested; whether there is a profit on these investments; are prohibited from disclosing any of this information to the CFA banks or the central banks of the African states.

This makes it impossible for African members to regulate their own monetary policies. The most inefficient and wasteful countries are able to use the foreign reserves of the more prudent countries without any meaningful intervention by the wealthier and more successful countries. Most importantly, the French Government uses these funds on deposit in France as assets of France. The CFA franc devaluation of 50 per cent against the French franc in January 1994 was a great surprise to several of the African states and caused major problems for them.

The problems for the African states are growing. The coming crisis in the Euro, with the bailouts of Greece, Portugal and others will have a strong effect on the value of the Euro. With the CFA franc pegged to the Euro the value of the CFA will decline with it. The cost of commodities (petroleum products, foodstuffs, etc.) priced in dollars will grow to be a heavier burden on the African economies. Moreover, France itself is in deep financial trouble.

The International Monetary Fund has warned this week that France will have to carry out more spending cuts to ensure it reaches its deficit reduction commitments amid lower-than-expected growth expectations. While France has predicted 2.25 per cent growth for 2012, the IMF has downgraded this to 1.9 per cent next year.

The French are spending almost US$2 million a day bombing Libya; above the budgeted expenditure in its defence budget. France is very short of money. However, the cost of massacring Ivoirians, using tanks, helicopter gunships and Special Forces were offset against the Ivory Coast money it was holding so didn’t add to the budgetary problems. The killing of Africans in the Ivory Coast, Cameroons, Rwanda, Chad and the Central African Republic have never been the subject of a budget request to the French defence budget as the Office of the President deducts these from the tranche at the Treasury (which is why it has never been debated in the French National Assembly). To add insult to injury the French estimated that the French business community had lost several millions of dollars when, in the rush to leave Abidjan in 2006 when the French Army massacred 65 unarmed civilians and wounded 1,200 others, the French lost money as they feared the revenge of the Ivoirians, The French demanded that the Ouattara government which they had installed paid them compensation for these putative losses. Indeed the Ouattara government paid them twice what they said they had lost in leaving.

Surely the time has come for the francophone governments to ask the French for a proper accounting of the money they are holding. Perhaps the next government in the Ivory Coast which will succeed Ouattara’s assassination or defeat at the polls will ask the French for an accounting. Wade in Senegal has asked but was never answered. The solution seems simple. Until the French give a proper accounting for Africa’s billions the African states should stop sending more to them. It is bad enough paying their overseer for the cost of his whip used to chastise them. It is wholly unreasonable to continue to do so when there is no upside, only potential losses.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Written by Dr. Gary K. Busch

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1956, Premier Colloque des Ecrivains et Artistes Noirs.

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noirs à la Sorbonne organisé par Alioune Diop.

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et Cheikh Anta Diop (Sénégal), Aimé Cesaire et Frantz Fanon (Martinique),

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LISTE DES PAYS AFRICAINS ENCORE SOUS

OCCUPATION  ETRANGERE.

 PAYS                         TERRITOIRES OCCUPANTS
ILES CHAGOS                      Royaume-Uni
                                                 (Bases militaires de
                                                  DIEGO GARCIA)

2. ILE SAINTE HELENE         Royaume-Uni

3. ILES CANARIES                   Espagne
 
4. LES AÇORES                        Portugal

5. LES ILES MADERES            Portugal

6. LA REUNION                          France

7. MAYOTTE                                 France
8. CEUTA ET MELILLA               Espagne
Source : Union Africaine

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Mbombog Mbog Bassong* est issu d’une famille fortement christianisée, d’un grand-père maternel chrétien et d’un grand-père paternel chrétien. En 1988, il rencontre Mbombog Nkoth Bisseck qui marque le deuxième tournant de sa vie après celle de Cheikh Anta Diop en 1986 à Paris. Chez ce dernier, il prend conscience de l’importance de l’histoire pour l’éveil de l’Afrique tandis que le premier assure son éducation initiatique. Aussi se décide-t-il de rompre avec le modèle chrétien et découvre, dans la connaissance africaine, un réservoir de savoirs dont l’humanité a à peine tiré quelque enseignement digne d’intérêt.

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Liste des principales langues par pays africain


Algérie Arabe, Berbère            
Angola Kimbundu, Umbundu, Siope
Bénin Fon, Yoruba, Gun, Mina, BA’Atonou,

Dendi, Ditammari et Yom
Botswana Setswana
Burkina Faso Mossi, Dioula, Peul
Burundi Kirundi, Swahili
Cameroun Bassa, Bamoun, Fang, Fulani
Cap Vert Criuolo
RCA Sangho, Arabe, Hausa, Swahili
Tchad Sara, Arabe
Comores Shikomoro
RDC Swahili, Lingala, Ishiluba, et Kikongo
Congo Lingala, Kikongo
Côte d'Ivoire Baoule, Bete, Senoufo, Dioula
Djibouti Arabe, Afar, Somali
Egypte Arabe, Nubian
Guinée Equatoriale Fang, Bubi, Créole
Erythrée Afar, Bilen, Kunama, Nara, Arabe, Tobedawi, Saho,
Tigre, Tigrinya
Ethiopie Amharic, Oromigna, Tigrigna
Gabon Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Gambie Manding, Wolof, Diola, Fulani
Ghana Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Twi, Fanti, Ga, Ewe, Dagbani
Guinée Malinké, Susu, Fulani
Guinée-Bissau Criolo, Fulani, Manding, Pepel, Balante
Kenya Swahili
Lesotho Sesotho; Zulu and Xhosa
Libéria Mende
Libye Arabe
Madagascar Malgache
Malawi Chichewa
Mali Bambara, Songhai, Fulani, Arabe, Senoufo,
Malinke
Mauritanie Hassania, Arabic, Wolof, Soninke, Fulani
Maurice Creole, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori
Maroc Arabe, Berbère
Mozambique Changana, Ndau, Makonde
Namibie Oshivambo, Herero, Nama, Afrikaans
Niger Hausa, Songhai, Arabe, Fulani
Nigeria Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani
Rwanda Kinyarwanda
RASD Hassania, Arabe
São Tomé et Principe Forro
Sénégal Wolof, Fulani,Serer, Diola, Manging, Sarakolé
Seychelles Seselwa
Sierra Leone Mende, Temne, Krio
Somalia Somali, Arabic
Afrique du Sud Xhosa, Zulu, Afrikaans, Ndebele, Sesotho sa
Leboa, Sesotho, Swati, Xitsonga, Setswana,
Tshivenda
Soudan Arabe, Nubien, Dinka, Masaleet Shuluk, Nueer,
Zandi,Fur
Swaziland Swazi
Tanzanie Swahili
Togo Ewé, Mina, Kabyé, Cotocoli
Tunisie Arabe
Ouganda Swahili, Luganda, Ateso, Luo
Zambie Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja,
Tonga
Zimbabwe Ndebele, Shona

Source : Union Africaine